I find the transition that has taken place for Crusoe throughout the novel so interesting. He has shifted from an aimless young boy who was “not bred to any trade” (2), to a poor castaway, to a successful habitant of an island that he has made livable. It seems as if he really finds his niche. Eventually, he has even started his own army! It is as if he runs the entire island like a ruler. Obviously, there are religious undertones to the novel, but I found myself (in the first half of the novel, before Friday) comparing the story to the story of Noah’s arc from the Bible. Not really the storyline specifically, but the imagery and symbols. There are continuous natural disasters with water, a man alone and finding solace with God, and the sense that Crusoe and God are the only beings in this micro-reality. I actually noticed this before I came across the allusion to Adam and Eve in Chapter XXII when speaking of his own disobedience. I found Crusoe’s reaction to the appearance of Friday so contradictory to his initial fear of human contact. He vacillates between desiring human contact (to the point where he teaches his parrot how to say his name in hopes of a social connection), to fearing a single footprint in the sand (he lives in fear of something he wanted so badly), to creating a fulfilling, subservient relationship with Friday. He recognizes this irony himself: “How strange a checker-worker of Providence is the life of man! Today we love what tomorrow we hate!” This apparent contradiction speaks to the changes that Crusoe has undergone during his life on the island and his progression towards inhumaneness from his constant solitude. I also found the racial dynamics in the novel a bit contradictory; I wasn’t sure if Defoe was affirming or subverting the race relations in his time period. Friday is not white and immediately subservient to Crusoe; this speaks to the inequalities between whites and non-whites in this time period. But, the close and loyal relationship between the two men somewhat subverted these racial norms as well. I found this very interesting. Overall, Crusoe’s return home is very unsatisfying. He is still isolated—we don’t even know his wife’s name, his wife passes away, and does not seem as happy as he was on the island.